The change did not eliminate disparity but reduced it to 18 to 1, which eventually made some 12,000 offenders eligible to seek reduced sentences.
The act reduced the disparate sentencing ratio for crack/powder cocaine, which disproportionately affected Blacks.
A major piece of prison policy reform was the U.S. Sentencing Commission's June vote to apply the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 Amendment to Federal Sentencing Guidelines retroactively.
Such matters as food, clothing, heating of the cells and sanitation could be noticed by the visitors. At Eastern State Penitentiary in one month alone, in 1861, nearly 800 visits in the cells and 300 at the cell door were carried out by Prison Society members.
From the time of the organization?s inception, Prison Society members made regular visits to prisons to speak with prisoners about their lives as well as conditions in the prison.
The role of the Prison Society could be subsumed under three rubrics: oversight and advocacy, prison visiting, and assistance to men and women released from prison.
Many times, the legal aid lawyers and prison officials are also unaware of the existing legal standards. The system fails the prisoners at every turn and often times the agencies blame each other for non-performance and unaccountability.
The occupancy in prisons exceeds by 41.4% over and above its sanctioned capacity.
In India, majority of these voiceless people remain in prison pending trial or conviction. Most recent statistics reveal that over 65% of the prisoners are under-trials and they may continue to be held in overcrowded prisons for years.
They have no voting rights, have very limited access to the outside world, and are under the complete control of the prison authority. They cannot speak with the press, write letters or speak with their families without the permission and/or censorship by the prison department.
The Indian criminal justice system seems to be dealing with two broad categories of people: those who live above the law and those who are absolutely crushed by it. Prisoners are one of the weakest constituencies in the society.
The tendency is now toward state control of prisoners with better sanitation, an improvement in the personnel of prison officials, the introduction of common schools, trade-schools, libraries, prison journals, lectures, and the formation of various societies among the prisoners.
The system of county jails in the United States still remains the worst feature of American prisons.
By 1835, America was considered to have two of the "best" prisons in the world in Pennsylvania.
Their goals were prison libraries, basic literacy (for Bible reading), reduction of whipping and beating, commutation of sentences, and separation of women, children and the sick.
After several bad starts, America finally enjoyed about a decade of real reform. Idealism, plus hope in the perfectibility of institutions, spurred a new generation of leaders including Francis Lieber, Samuel Gridley Howe and the peerless Dix.
Auburn reverted to a strict disciplinary approach. The champion of discipline and first national figure in prison reform was Louis Dwight. founder of the Boston Prison Discipline Society, he spread the Auburn system throughout America's jails and added salvation and Sabbath School to further penitence.
In 1821, a disaster occurred in Auburn Prison that shocked even the governor into pardoning hardened criminals. After being locked down in solitary, many of the eighty men committed suicide or had mental breakdowns.
After the War of 1812, reformers from Boston and New York began a crusade to remove children from jails into juvenile detention centers.
prisons were filled to overflowing with everyone who gave offense to society from committing murder to spitting on the street. Men, women, children were thrown together in the most atrocious conditions.
the sick and insane were "confined in this Commonwealth in cages, closets, cellars, stalls, pens! Chained, beaten with rods, lashed into obedience."
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