An adverb is a part of speech that changes the meaning of verbs or any part of speech other than nouns. Adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives, clauses, sentences, and other adverbs. Adverbs answer questions such as how?, in what way?, when?, where?, and to what extent?. This is called the adverbial function.
If the work of the adverb is performed by a phrase, that adverb (phrase) is called adverbial phrase.
A full-clause may also do the job of an adverb. In that case such a clause is called adverbial clause.
Adjectives that do not change form (add -ly) to become adverbs are called "flat adverbs." Typical flat adverbs are early, late, hard, fast, long, high, low, deep, near.To determine whether these words are functioning as adjectives or adverbs, one must determine
1) what the word is describing (noun or verb)
2) what question the word is answering
And some words that end in -ly are not necessarily adverbs. Such as: friendly, lively, rally, folly, lonely, sickly
"Larry’s frog croaked quite hoarsely." This time an adverb is describing another adverb. Hoarsely is an adverb because it explains how the frog croaked. In other words, hoarsely describes the verb croaked. How hoarsely? Answer: quite hoarsely. Quite is an adverb describing the adverb hoarsely, which in turn describes the verb croaked scratching himself.
Many adverbs end in -ly. For example: awkwardly, happily, sharply, tightly, cheerfully, loudly, swiftly, viciously
However, this is not an exact method of identifying adverbs. Some common adverbs do not end in -ly. For example: everywhere, here, never, so, fast, much, rather, well
You can use a conjunctive adverb to join two clauses together. Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs are "also," "consequently," "finally," "furthermore," "hence," "however," "incidentally," "indeed," "instead," "likewise," "meanwhile," "nevertheless," "next," "nonetheless," "otherwise," "still," "then," "therefore," and "thus." A conjunctive adverb is not strong enough to join two independent clauses without the aid of a semicolon.
Adverbs are the most moveable of all parts of speech; therefore, it is sometimes difficult to identify an adverb on the basis of its position in a sentence.
Adverbs also describe other descriptions, usually making the description more or less intense. Here’s an example:
"An extremely unhappy Larry flipped when his trust fund tanked."
How unhappy? Answer: extremely unhappy. Extremely is an adverb describing the adjective unhappy.
An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much".
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