In almost all breeds it is the case that the first three litters are the best. It is accordingly important that a proper mating should be considered at the outset, and a prospective sire selected either through the medium of stud advertisements or by private arrangement with the owner of the desired dog.
Dogs with temperamental problems should not be bred. Although we love all dogs, Purebred Breeders must note that dogs that should only be bred if they are well-adjust, obedient and confident. This is important because the nature of the parents can affect the pups, or their ability to find good homes since some persons will allow the lineage to weigh heavily on their choice.
Breeding dogs is a demanding task and takes a lot of time, effort and money. The first thing to note is that no two breeds of dog are exactly alike. Purebred Breeders suggests that prospective breeders objectively look at their dog and see if he or she is of breed standard, good health, and would be improving the quality of the breed. You must carefully consider several factors before breeding your dog.
It may take 1-2 weeks to train a male to ejaculate in a veterinary office without an estrual bitch present. Therefore, it is ideal for the dog to have had semen collected and to be familiar with the collection procedure long before any semen is actually needed.
Historically, dogs were used for various tasks, such as hunting, guarding, and herding. Some dogs, because of particular morphological traits, were more adept than others at certain tasks. Having made the association between utility and physical characteristics, dogs were selectively bred for desired purposes. Thus, early ‘breeds’ evolved that are the ancestors of today’s dog breeds. Through the centuries, intermittent inbreeding further refined dog breeds, so that desired physical and behavioral traits became increasingly heritable. The purebred principle and strict breeding rules, however, were not introduced until the late 19th century.
More than 500 genetic defects exist in today’s purebred dogs (1). Inherited diseases such as hip dysplasia, brachycephalic airway syndrome, cardiomyopathies, endocrine dysfunctions, blood disorders, and hundreds more, affect the quality of life and longevity of these dogs. Over 400 breeds currently exist, but they are artificial constructs of human fancy, instead of the evolutionary outcome of natural selection (2,3). The wide array of genetic diseases found in purebred dogs reflects their unnatural development, by kennel club associations and breeders who are largely responsible for this welfare predicament (2,4–6).
Male dogs mature sexually at about six months of age. When both testicles are descended, theoretically the dog can mate, but it is best to wait until the dog is nine to twelve months old before using it for breeding. This is to allow the dog to fully mature; a heavy breeding season may stunt his growth.
The female dog first comes into heat anytime from six months of age on, depending on her breed and size. The small toy breeds usually come on heat at about six to seven months; the larger breeds usually at nine to ten months. This period of sexual activity usually occurs twice a year.
From the droopy Bassett hound to the sleek-and-slim Weimaraner, dogs show an amazing diversity in body shape. A study published in The American Naturalist in 2010 found that the differences between dog breeds' skulls are as pronounced as the differences between completely separate mammal species. A Collie skull, for example, is as different from a Pekingese skull as a cat's skull is from a walrus's.
Puppy mills have been around for decades. They continue to thrive because they prey on unwitting consumers who are smitten by too-cute-for-words puppies in pet store windows and on legitimate-seeming websites. Puppy mills house dogs in shockingly poor conditions. After their fertility wanes, breeding animals are often killed, abandoned or sold cheaply to another mill to try and get "one more litter" out of the dog. The annual result of all this breeding is millions of puppies, many with behavior and/or health problems.