By 1814 industrialization had occurred in the majority of Europe, hence capitalism had sowed its seeds deep in society. It was in France (one of the first countries to industrialize) that opposition to capital and to the ruling class first developed. The saint-Simonians were among the most important opposition groups to capitalism at the time.
In a capitalist economy, incentives are of the utmost importance. Market prices, the profit-and-loss system of accounting, and private property rights provide an efficient, interrelated system of incentives to guide and direct economic behavior. ... A centrally planned economy without market prices or profits, where property is owned by the state, is a system without an effective incentive mechanism to direct economic activity.
Capitalists favor a system of free enterprise which means the government should not interfere in the economy - that the laws of supply and demand will make sure that the ecnomy runs most efficiently in meeting people's needs. Capitalism is characterized by competition in which there is rivalry in supplying or getting an economic service or good.
Freedom of information, speech and the press is firmly rooted in the structures of modern western democratic thought. With limited restrictions, every capitalist democracy has legal provisions protecting these rights.
The failure of communist reforms have sprung consistently from the same cause -- a lack of realistic thinking as to the moral qualities of human beings liberated by the reformers. People were always considered to be decent, always willing to direct their efforts and abilities at working for others ( the common good), and claiming for themselves only as much as society considered they deserved.
At one point, about 25 percent of the countries in the world were communist. Today only five countries are communist. ... Even countries that declare themselves officially communist, including China, Cuba, North Korea, and Vietnam, have begun to shift away from the traditional principles and policies that marked communist regimes.
In a communist society, the individual's best interests are indistinguishable from the society's best interest. Thus, the idea of an individual freedom is incompatible with a communist ideology.
Communist governments introduced policies of discrimination against entire classes of "hostile" people.
A private form of any class structure is one where the individuals occupying class positions – and especially the positions of appropriators/distributors of the surplus – are not officials, functionaries, or employees of any state apparatus. In contrast, a state form is one where individuals occupy class positions in their capacity as state officials or their appointees.
In the socialist/communist economic model, private-property ownership is severely restricted; the state confiscates virtually everything, ostensibly for the benefit of “the people.” Such a system invariably involves the wholesale redistribution of wealth, overseen and enforced entirely by government bureaucrats.
The labor theory of value is a major pillar of traditional Marxian economics, which is evident in Marx’s masterpiece, Capital (1867). The theory’s basic claim is simple: the value of a commodity can be objectively measured by the average number of labor hours required to produce that commodity.
In most versions of the communist utopia, everyone would be expected to co-operate enthusiastically in the process of production, but the individual citizen's equal rights of access to consumer goods would be completely unaffected by his/her own individual contribution to production -- hence Karl Marx's famous slogan "From each according to his ability; to each according to his need." The Marxian and other 19th century communist utopias also were expected to dispense with such "relics of the past" as trading, money, prices, wages, profits, interest, land-rent, calculations of profit and loss, contracts, banking, insurance, lawsuits, etc.
In the communist class structure, the individuals who produce the surplus are identical to those who appropriate and distribute it. The collective of workers appropriates its own surplus and then distributes portions of it to other people for providing the conditions of existence of such a communist arrangement of production (for example, to a political party that promotes the virtues of communism, to a state apparatus that protects it, to managers and technicians who advance its technology and productivity, and so on).