TQM, in the form of statistical quality control, was invented by Walter A. Shewhart. It was initially implemented at Western Electric Company, in the form developed by Joseph Juran who had worked there with the method. TQM was demonstrated on a grand scale by Japanese industry through the intervention of W. Edwards Deming—who, in consequence, and thanks to his missionary labors in the U.S. and across the world, has come to be viewed as the "father" of quality control...
...the basic elements of total quality management as expounded by the American Society for Quality Control: (1) policy, planning, and administration; (2) product design and design change control; (3) control of purchased material; (4) production quality control; (5) user contact and field performance; (6) corrective action; and (7) employee selection, training, and motivation.
A preliminary step in TQM implementation is to assess the organization’s current reality. Relevant preconditions have to do with the organization’s history, its current needs, precipitating events leading to TQM, and the existing employee quality of working life. If the current reality does not include important preconditions, TQM implementation should be delayed until the organization is in a state in which TQM is likely to succeed.
The TQC methodology relies on the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle to manage processes and, when problems arise, statistical tools to solve them. The methodology and tools are used often by employees during kaizen activities and together form an important subsystem of lean. The term “total quality control” was coined in 1957 by U.S. quality expert Armand Feigenbaum, who saw quality control professionals as central to promoting TQC.
Employee involvement is one approach to improving quality and productivity. Its use is credited for contributing to the success enjoyed by the Japanese in the world marketplace. Employee involvement is not a replacement for management nor is it final word in quality improvement. It is a means to better meet the organization's goals for quality and productivity at all levels of an organization.
The essence of benchmarking is the continuous process of comparing a company's strategy, products and processes with those of world leaders and best in class organizations in order to learn how they achieved excellence and then setting out to match and even surpass it. For many companies, benchmarking has become a key component of their TQM programs.
Total Quality Management can consist of different programs that different companies use to obtain the results of customer satisfaction, better quality products, and a decrease in the defects of the products. Total Quality Management in the Xerox Corporation includes programs such as benchmarking, reduced supplier base, and leadership teams
Larger companies committed to TQM programs may appoint a special manager or VP of quality. In smaller companies, this task is usually undertaken by the chief executive officer (CEO) or the owner.
The TQM philosophy stresses on continual process improvement. This concept implies that there is no acceptable quality level since the customer's needs, values and expectations are continuously changing and more demanding.
"Total" stresses the idea that all employees at different levels of the organisation understand the concepts and work towards achieving quality.
"Quality" means excellence, in all aspects of the organisation. "Management" refers to the commitment towards quality results, through optimum use of resources.
The TQM philosophy stresses a systematic, integrated, consistent, organisation-wide perspective involving everyone and everything. It focuses primarily on total satisfaction of both internal and external customers within a management environment that seeks continuous improvement if all systems and processes.