Until 1977 the IRA was organized, as it had been since the Irish Civil War of 1922-23, as a shadow or underground version of the British army, complete with officers, staff and line, and territorial brigades, battalions, and companies. From 1976-1977 it was reorganized in smaller cellular structures, active service units (ASU's), each intended to be specialized (e.g. in sniping, executions, bombings, robberies), and to comprise a small number of volunteers. The idea was to intensify the division of labour, and to create a more compact organizations, less vulnerable both to volunteers' surrendering information and to intelligence losses through informants.
The IRA was created in 1919 as a successor to the Irish Volunteers, a militant nationalist organization founded in 1913. The IRA's purpose was to use armed force to render British rule in Ireland ineffective and thus to assist in achieving the broader objective of an independent republic, which was pursued at the political level by Sinn Féin, the Irish nationalist party. From its inception, however, the IRA operated independently of political control and in some periods actually took the upper hand in the independence movement. Its membership overlaps with that of Sinn Féin.
The Palestinian terrorists who killed 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Olympics were assisted by a German neo-Nazi, a German newsmagazine reported Sunday. The neo-Nazi, Willi Pohl, helped forge passports and ferried one of the Black September terror cell ringleaders around Germany in the weeks before the Olympic massacre.
Taliban and al qaeda, the two terrorist organisations born out of Islamic roots, seem to be almost one and the same. Though the two talk of an Islamic world, there are much differences between the two...
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Al Qaeda consists of Sunni Muslims who practise Wahabism, which is considered to be the most extreme form of Islam. The al qaeda wants to establish Islamic rule and that all governments should be replaced by Islamic leaders.
The Taliban at first consisted of religious students who were very much conservative. They believed more in Sharia (Islamic law). The Taliban, dominated by people with Pashtun identity, controlled Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001. Though ousted from power in 2001, they have embarked again, spreading terrorism around the world.
On September 11, 2001, 19 militants associated with the Islamic extremist group al-Qaeda hijacked four airliners and carried out suicide attacks against targets in the United States. Two of the planes were flown into the towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, a third plane hit the Pentagon just outside Washington, D.C., and the fourth plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania. Often referred to as 9/11, the attacks resulted in extensive death and destruction, triggering major U.S. initiatives to combat terrorism and defining the presidency of George W. Bush. Over 3,000 people were killed during the attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C., including more than 400 police officers and firefighters.
Yet the State Department's report (due on April 30 but released last week), did not include the Taliban with groups such as al-Qaida, Hamas and the Real Irish Republican Army (RIRA). To qualify, an organization must meet only three criteria: It must be foreign, it must engage in terrorist activity and its activity must threaten the security of the U.S. or its citizens.
"It is hard to imagine this agency can see fit to issue a report that doesn't include the Taliban groups," Fred Gedrich, a foreign policy analyst and former State Department employee, told The Daily Caller. "They have killed more Americans and conducted more terror attacks on innocent civilians during the past 12 months than any other terror group."
Another tragic terrorists attack occurred in India known as the 1993 Bombay bombings. The bombings were a series of thirteen bomb explosions that took place in Bombay (now Mumbai), India on March 12, 1993. The coordinated attacks were the most destructive bomb explosions in Indian history. The single-day attacks resulted in up to 250 civilian fatalities and 700 injuries. The attacks are believed to have been coordinated by Dawood Ibrahim, don of the organized crime syndicate named D-Company, which had operated as a terrorist organization. It is believed that the attacks were carried out in retaliation for widespread massacre of Muslims in Mumbai during December and January, and also the demolition of the Babri Masjid.
On May 1, 2011, American soldiers killed al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden at his compound near Islamabad, Pakistan. Intelligence officials believe bin Laden was responsible for many deadly acts of terrorism, including the 1998 bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania and the September 11, 2001 attacks on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center. He had been on the FBI’s “most wanted” list for more than a decade.
One of the most tragic terrorist attacks in Europe happened in Spain on March 11, 2004. The incident was a coordinated bombing of commuter trains in Madrid that killed 191 people and injured more than 1,750. Al-Qaeda was responsible for the said attacked. The official investigation by the Spanish Judiciary determined the attacks were directed by an al-Qaeda-inspired terrorist cell although no direct al-Qaeda participation (only “inspiration”) has been established. Spanish nationals who sold the explosives to the terrorists were also arrested.
There are six different types of terrorism. They are anarchist terrorism, state-sponsored terrorism, right wing terrorism, left wing terrorism, religious terrorism, and nationalist terrorism.
Looking at the root causes of terrorism, however, is not as uncontroversial as it seems. Some dismiss it as simplistic; others even believe it is an effort to justify terrorism. I could not disagree more strongly. As the various contributions in this volume show, those who research the roots of terrorism are conscious that no single causes exists; instead, we are dealing with a complex, multifaceted problem that requires an equally sophisticated response. Indeed, if our attempts at addressing the roots of terrorism have been simplistic, it is probably because we have not done enough to understand them.
Until well into the twentieth century, terror usually meant state terror. The tactics of the French revolutionaries were copied by the Cheka secret police founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1918 to ensure the Bolshevik grip on power and later by Nazi Germany's Gestapo in the 1930s and 40s. Incidentally, it was the Nazi occupiers of Europe during the Second World War who characterized the work of the French, Czech, Polish, and other resistance movements, supplied and fomented by Britain's Special Operations Executive, as "terrorism."
The word terrorism was first used in 1795, a grim spawn of the heady period that brought the American War of Independence and the French Revolution. The word was born with the Reign of Terror, the use of the guillotine by the French revolutionaries to consolidate their regime by killing their enemies and intimidating the potential opposition.