In Greek religion and mythology, Athena or Athene also referred to as Pallas Athena/Atheneis the goddess of wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization, law and justice, just warfare, mathematics, strategy, the arts, crafts, and skill. Minerva, Athena's Roman incarnation, embodies similar attributes.
Many of the Roman gods and goddesses had the same powers as Greek gods and goddesses. The Romans gave different names to their characters. For example, the Greeks named their goddess of wisdom and war Athena. The Romans named their goddess of wisdom and war minerva. Both Athena and Minerva had the same powers and duties. Both Romans and Greeks told similar stories about Athena and Minerva.
Unlike other gods, Athena was not quick to anger. She believed it was better to settle arguments with wisdom rather than fighting. But Athena did encourage people to fight wisely and for a good cause. She helped mythical people like Jason, Hercules, and Odysseus. Athena gave these heroes advice or gifts to help them on their adventures.
Dedicated to eternal virginity, [Athena] mates neither with gods nor with mortals. Her myth of origins sets her apart: she and she alone has no mother, having been born from the head of Zeus, whose appropriation of the female part in childbearing put an end to the replacement of father by sonic the world of the gods and consolidated the permanence of Zeus's Olympian rule over mortals and immortals alike.
Athena represented moderation, justice and democracy. Unlike emotional and irrational divinities such as Aphrodite, Hera and Ares, Athena has been sense as a figure of reason and enlightenment, and the city she watched over as the seat of civilization. The city was what it was because its goddess was what she was and this was a relationship the Athenians actively fostered in their art.
Her fighting capabilities were accepted to be even superior to those of the war god Ares. She was an inspiration to those involved in battle, by bestowing them with courage and prudence, being a guarantor of victory for those who respected and worshipped her. For this reason, she was known as Athena Nike (Victory) as well as Akraia (meaning “at the edge”), since the sanctuaries dedicated to the goddess were usually located at the edge of the city’s acropolis, thus being the last line of defence during an enemy attack.
[Athena] was more of a stategist and a diplomat and was called upon to mediate in several disputes and wars amongst the Gods. This Greek Goddess was also associated with domestic crafts. In Greek mythology she taught Prometheus architecture, astrology, mathematics, medicine and navigation. She is credited with the invention of spinning, weaving, the plough and rake.
Zeus, fearful of a prophecy that a son would usurp him as ruler of the Gods, swallowed whole the titaness Metis, who was currently with his child. However, the child continued to grow within him, causing Zeus migraines. Hephaestos was summoned and split the side of Zeus's head, out of which lept Athena, fully clad in armour and ready for battle.
Athene came from North Africa. She was the Libyan Triple Goddess Neith, Metis, Medusa, Anath, or Ath-enna. An inscription at Larnax-Lapithou named her Athene in Greek, Anat in Phoenician. Pre-Hellenic myths said she came from the uterus of Lake Tritonis (Three Queens) in Libya. Egyptians sometimes called Isis Athene, which meant "I have come from myself." Greeks claimed Athene was born from Zeus's head
Athena won the right to be patron goddess of Athens. Supposedly, Athena and Poseidon had a dispute over who was to preside over Athens. Zeus, eager to avoid arguments on Olympus, proposed a contest between the siblings, with the people of Athens themselves to judge. Both Athena and Poseidon were to present a gift to the Athenian polis, and the god whose gift was deemed to be the most useful to the city would be granted the title 'patron of Athens'. Poseidon, being the god of the sea, produced a freshwater spring on the Acropolis, but Athena caused an olive tree to spring up. As olive trees served many uses, Athena's gift was deemed the most useful and thenceforward she was the patron goddess of Athens. It was, apparently, a good choice as Athena was accredited with several inventions which she gave to Athens, including the plow, the rake, the chariot, and the art of navigation.
Greek mythology considered Athena to be a Goddess of wisdom, the arts, industry, justice and skill. In the Greek myths, Athena's symbols have been a spear, an owl, and the olive branch. The "Spear of Truth" symbol of Athena was used by a secret society of seekers of Truth in England, of which Francis Bacon was a member. Bacon, the final embodiment of beloved Saint Germain, used the name "Shake - spear" as a pseudonym when writing the Shakespearean plays, indicating that he was "shaking" the "Spear of Truth" at human ignorance.