The Mongol Empire existed during the 13th and 14th centuries A.D., and was the largest contiguous land empire in human history. At its greatest extent it spanned 9,700 km (6,000 mi), covered an area of 24,000,000 km (9,300,000 sq mi), 16% of the Earth's total land area, and held sway over a population of 100 million.
Mongol Empire was the biggest land empire in history. Its territory extended from the Yellow Sea in eastern Asia to the borders of eastern Europe. At various times it included China, Korea, Mongolia, Persia (now Iran), Turkestan, and Armenia. It also included parts of Burma, Vietnam, Thailand, and Russia.
The Mongols, who eventually became known as the Tatars, were the most savage conquerors of history. But this vast empire helped increase contacts between peoples of different cultures. Migrations fostered these contacts and promoted trade. Roads were built to connect Russia and Persia with eastern Asia. Many Europeans came to China, and Chinese went to Russia and other parts of Europe.
One may see the Mongol Empire as a gigantic political force, bringing almost the entire continent of Asia under the control of one Great Khan. The Mongol government was a superior one, and thus the whole continent became interconnected. During the Mongol Empire, one was guaranteed safety in travel throughout the entire empire. Thus, the Empire created a huge economical boom and a great exchange of culture and knowledge throughout the entire world.
Today the Mongols and their great leaders are sometimes remembered in two different: as valiant heroes who conquered vast lands against all odds to build a mighty empire or as ruthless conquerors who destroyed everything in their path. The latter is particularly interesting because it is probably more of a natural consequence of the sheer extent of the Mongol conquests rather than the actual creulty of the Mongols since conquerors like Caesar or Alexander the Great were just as cruel as Chingis Khan. Furthermore, the Mongols did not destroy everything in their path. In the end, civilization was rebuilt and benefited greatly from the newly established global economy.
Their main weapon was the bow and arrow. And the Mongols of the early 1200s were highly disciplined, superbly coordinated and brilliant in tactics.
The kidnapping of women had caused feuding among the Mongols, and, as a teenager, Temujin had suffered from the kidnapping of his young wife, Borte. After devoting himself to rescuing her, he made it a law that there was to be no kidnapping of women.
Founded by Genghis Khan in 1206, it encompassed the majority of the territories from southeast Asia to eastern Europe. Historically the time of Mongol Empire facilitated great cultural exchange and trade between the East, West, and the Middle East during the time between 13th century and 14th century.
The Mongol warriors were both Mongol- and Turkic-speaking nomadic horsemen from the region of Mongolia. In western Asia and Europe they were called Tatars, after one of the Turkic groups. They created terror in the lands they conquered by the savagery of their slaughter and destruction. The Mongol armies had no strong political organization and eventually broke up into warring kingdoms. Some Mongol khans (rulers) became assimilated with the conquered; others maintained their identity but gradually lost their power.
The Mongol Empire brought peace, stability, and unity to large tracts of the known world and practiced religious tolerance to a remarkable degree at a time when conformity to religious doctrine was rigidly enforced in much of Europe.
The main contribution of the Mongol conquest was to bring the civilizations of Europe, the Near East, and China into closer contact. Once they had become more civilized, Mongol rulers built well-guarded highways to stimulate trade from all over the known world.