The Arab Heads of State have agreed to unite their political efforts at the international and diplomatic level to eliminate the effects of the aggression and to ensure the withdrawal of the aggressive Israeli forces from the Arab lands which have been occupied since the aggression of June 5. This will be done within the framework of the main principles by which the Arab States abide, namely, no peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel, no negotiations with it, and insistence on the rights of the Palestinian people in their own country.
To our Arab neighbors we extend, also at this hour - and with added emphasis at this hour - our hand in peace. And to our Christian and Muslim fellow citizens, we solemnly promise full religious freedom and rights. We did not come to Jerusalem for the sake of other peoples' holy places, and not to interfere with the adherents of other faiths, but in order to safeguard its entirety, and to live there together with others, in unity.
9 June: Israel begins ground operations against Syrian, hoping to secure its northeastern border after nearly two decades of Syrian attacks on the Galilee.
10 June: The war ends with Israeli forces in control of the Sinai Peninsula up to the Suez Canal, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights.
On June 8, 1967, the Israeli Air Force and Navy pounded the Liberty as the ship trolled alone in international waters off the coast of the Gaza Strip, eavesdropping on the war between Israel and its Arab neighbors. The attack killed thirty-four American sailors and injured 171 others in the most deadly assault on an American ship since the U.S.S. Indianapolis was torpedoed in the waning days of World War II...
Israel apologized within hours of the attack, blaming it on a series of tactical blunders that culminated in its forces mistakenly concluding that the Liberty was an Egyptian horse and troop transport ship. The White House...accepted the apology.
Israel had warned Jordan that it would not attack unless Jordan initiated hostilities. Rejecting this warning, Jordanian forces attacked Israeli neighbourhoods in Jerusalem on June 5th. In response, Israeli forces entered the Jordanian-controlled eastern part of the city and, after a series of intense battles, drove out Jordanian forces and liberated the historic Old City.
So far, the Jordanians had reacted much as Israeli leaders had predicted, demonstrating their Arab solidarity in a limited way, short of all-out war. But then, at 11:15, that situation changed. Jordanian army howitzers launched the first of 6,000 shells on Jewish Jerusalem...
In the meantime, both the United States and the Soviet Union publicly sought a ceasefire while privately warning the other not to intervene in the fighting (in fact, the 1967 war marked the first use of the diplomatic "hot line" between the two countries). While not rebuking Israel for its preemptive strike, the Johnson administration did impose an arms embargo on the region... The United States became more concerned when Israel began to push into the Syrian-held Golan Heights, raising the possibility that the Soviet Union would respond. A U.N.-sponsored ceasefire took hold on June 10, however, and direct confrontation between the superpowers was avoided.
Egypt, the largest Arab state with a population of 31 million, massed troops on its border with Israel and imposed a naval blockade of Israel’s southern port, an act of war. Confronted with these aggressive moves, and the Arab leaders' promises to destroy the Jewish state, Israel launched a pre-emptive strike against the Egyptian army and airforce. Egypt’s air force was quickly crippled, and a well-executed Israeli ground offensive routed the Egyptian forces in Gaza and the Sinai peninsula in four days.
Even by Middle East standards, the spring of 1967 was a tense time. Israel was periodically being attacked by Palestinian guerrillas in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, territories controlled by Egypt and Jordan respectively, and Syrian troops were lobbing artillery fire from the Golan Heights.
In April, Israel retaliated by downing six of Syria's Soviet-made fighter planes. After the Soviet Union spread rumors that Israel was planning to attack Syria, the Egyptian army mobilized 100,000 troops and 1,000 tanks in the Sinai Peninsula.
Israeli troops captured Egypt's Sinai peninsula during the 1956 British, French and Israeli military campaign in response to the nationalisation of the Suez Canal. The Israelis subsequently withdrew and were replaced with a UN force. In 1967, Egypt ordered the UN troops out and blocked Israeli shipping routes - adding to already high levels of tension between Israel and its neighbours.