The Court's caseload has increased steadily to a current total of more than 10,000 cases on the docket per Term. The increase has been rapid in recent years. Plenary review, with oral arguments by attorneys, is granted in about 100 cases per Term. Formal written opinions are delivered in 80 to 90 cases. Approximately 50 to 60 additional cases are disposed of without granting plenary review. The publication of a Term's written opinions, including concurring opinions, dissenting opinions, and orders, approaches 5,000 pages.
regional courts of appeals continue to operate under stress because filings have, for the most part, continued to rise. Filings per year per judge--which had jumped from 73 in 1950 to 137 in 1978 --only continued to increase--to 194 in 1984 and 300 in 1997. Although filings are down from their peak in 2006, they still remain quite high--at 335 filings per judge...
The Constitution states that the Supreme Court has both original and appellate jurisdiction. Original jurisdiction means that the Supreme Court is the first, and only, Court to hear a case. The Constitution limits original jurisdiction cases to those involving disputes between the states or disputes arising among ambassadors and other high-ranking ministers. Appellate jurisdiction means that the Court has the authority to review the decisions of lower courts. Most of the cases the Supreme Court hears are appeals from lower courts.
The Federal Circuit is unique among the thirteen Circuit Courts of Appeals. It has nationwide jurisdiction in a variety of subject areas, including international trade, government contracts, patents, trademarks, certain money claims against the United States government, federal personnel, veterans' benefits, and public safety officers' benefits claims. Appeals to the court come from all federal district courts, the United States Court of Federal Claims, the United States Court of International Trade, and the United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims.
There is an institutional preference for a trial court's rulings and findings in the U. S. judicial system...
In the federal system, courts are organized both by locality and by hierarchy (district court, court of appeals, and federal supreme court). At the lowest level are the district courts, which adjudicate basic civil and criminal proceedings.
Federal District Courts have subject matter jurisditions in cases involving federal questions (federal statute, a treaty, the Constitution or any state law claim arising from the same set of operative facts as a claim based on the aforementioned sources of law) or diversity of citizenship (civil case where the parties of citizens of different states or non-U.S. citizens).
The federal court system is divided into 12 geographic circuits. For example, Circuit One includes the New England states of Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. Circuit Nine includes seven states in the far western part of the country.
The Obama administration stipulated the incontestable to a disgruntled federal court on Thursday, formally declaring that “the power of the courts to review the constitutionality of legislation is beyond dispute.”
The judiciary act of 1789, which gave life to Article III, originated in the Senate. The act provided for an elaborate system of federal courts, created the office of attorney general, and in Section 25 authorized the Supreme Court to review on appeal decisions of state courts concerning questions of federal law involving the United States Constitution and the laws and treaties made under it.
The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.