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Verbals in Standard English

Verbals in Standard English

Non-finite verb, a verb form that functions both as a verb and as another lexical category. A word or group of words that functions as a verb by serving as the head of a verb phrase. (In some languages, adjectives are verbals.)

 

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Christa Penning

Christa Penning

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Split infinitives occur when a full infinitive is used to split the word “to” from the bare infinitive. The following are examples:

to boldly go (perhaps one of the most famous split infinitives from Star Trek)
to carelessly toss
to carefully tread

Article: Infinitives
Source: Write.com

You cannot end an infinitive with “s,” “es,” “ed” or “ing;” if these endings are present, the word is not an infinitive – it is another form of verb or verbal.

Article: Infinitives
Source: Write.com

First and foremost, an infinitive is the form of the verb, but it is not a verb. Second, an infinitive can be a noun, an adjective or an adverb. And finally, it is always "to" plus a verb.

Article: Infinitives
Source: Dreaming Toward Home

The infinitive is the base form of a verb with to. Usually it functions as a noun, although it can also function as an adjective or adverb.

Article: English: Verbals: Gerunds...
Source: Cliffs Notes

Be careful with the present participle, the "ing" form - it looks just like the gerund, but the gerund is a noun and the participle is an adjective. Examples: "RUNNING along the river relaxed Tom." This is a gerund; it is a noun and the subject of the sentence. "RUNNING along the river, Tom felt relaxed." This is a participle; it is an adjective which modifies the subject, Tom.

Hint: Make sure the participle can modify the subject or the sentence will contain what we call a dangling participle. For instance, we cannot say "Trying to escape, the garbage can blocked his path." We can say, "Trying to escape, he found a garbage can blocking his path." Like any other adjective, the participle (present or past) must be next to the noun (subject or object) that it modifies.

"Angered by the article, Drake decided to write a letter to the editor." "Angered" is an adjective describing Drake's state of being; "decided" is a past tense verb stating the subject's (Drake's) action in the sentence.

Article: 1.3g - Verbals
Source: University of Calgary

Like the present participle, the past participle, when it appears with an auxiliary verb has its own special roles. Without an auxiliary verb, an "ed" verb form is simply either past tense (if it functions as a verb) or a verbal (it functions as a adjective). The present or past participle, when we use them as verbals, are adjectival in function; they modify things - subjects or objects.

Article: 1.3g - Verbals
Source: University of Calgary

The second type of participle, the past participle, is a little more complicated, since not all verbs form the past tense regularly. The following are all past participles:

the sunken ship,
a ruined city,
a misspelled word.

Note that only transitive verbs can use their past participles as adjectives, and that unlike other verbals, past participles do not take objects (unless they are part of a compound verb).

Article: Verbals
Source: University of Ottawa

To make a present participle, you add "-ing" to the verb, sometimes doubling the final consonant:

"think" becomes "thinking"
"fall" becomes "falling"
"run" becomes "running"

Article: Verbals
Source: University of Ottawa

A participle is a verbal that functions as an adjective.

Article: Verbals
Source: Towson University

When a “-ing” form of a verb is used following a preposition, it is always a gerund. A good way to remember this is that when a gerund follows a preposition, it is easily replaced with another noun. The gerund is the object of the preposition it follows. Consider the following examples: Example 6: "Karen stopped by her co-worker’s office before leaving."

Article: Gerunds
Source: Write.com

Like nouns, we can use gerunds with adjectives (including articles and other determiners): "pointless QUESTIONING," "a SETTLING of debts," "the MAKING of Titanic," "his DRINKING of alcohol."

But when we use a gerund with an article, it does not usually take a direct object: "a settling of debts (not a settling debts)"

Article: Gerunds as Subject, Objec...
Source: EnglishClub

Like nouns, gerunds can be the subject, object or complement of a sentence: "SMOKING costs a lot of money." "I don't like WRITING." "My favourite occupation is READING."

But, like a verb, a gerund can also have an object itself. In this case, the whole expression [gerund + object] can be the subject, object or complement of the sentence: "SMOKING cigarettes costs a lot of money." "I don't like WRITING letters." "My favourite occupation is READING detective stories."

Article: Gerunds as Subject, Objec...
Source: EnglishClub

A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that functions as a noun

Article: Verbals
Source: Towson University

Verbals are words that seem to carry the idea of action or being but do not function as a true verb. The are sometimes called "nonfinite" (unfinished or incomplete) verbs. Because time is involved with all verb forms, whether finite or nonfinite, however, following a logical Tense Sequence is important. Verbals are frequently accompanied by other, related words in what is called a verbal phrase.

Article: Verbs and Verbals
Source: Capital Community College

The three verbals— gerunds, infinitives, and participles—are formed from verbs, but are never used alone as action words in sentences. Instead, verbals function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. These verbals are important in phrases.

Article: English: Verbals: Gerunds...
Source: Cliffs Notes
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