Put simply, a noun is a word used to indicate a person, thing, place or idea. In linguistics, a noun is a member of an open lexical category whose members can occur as the main word in the subject of a clause, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition. In traditional English grammar, the noun is one of the eight parts of speech.
Sometimes in English, a verb is used as a noun. When the verb form is altered and it serves the same function as a noun in the sentence, it is called a gerund. The gerunds "sleeping" and "studying" are -ing forms of the verbs sleep and study. Sleeping is a noun functioning as the subject of this sentence, and studying is a noun functioning as an object.
Collective nouns are those nouns that refer to a group of something as a whole unit, such as a company, team, personnel or troop. They are unique in the sense that they can function as a plural or singular noun without changing form, making them uniquely uniform. The inconsistencies come into play within the context of the sentence in which one is used.
A Countable Noun is a noun which can be counted and modified by a numeral. A Count Noun occurs both in singular and plural form as well as co-occurring with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, most, etc. Countable nouns are individual objects, people, places, etc. which can be counted. Count nouns can be made plural, usually by adding -s or -es at the end.
An uncountable noun (or non-count noun) is a type of common noun that cannot be counted or modified by a number without specifying a unit of measurement. In general, non-count nouns are considered to refer to indivisible wholes (which are not individual objects and can not be counted). For this reason, they are sometimes called MASS nouns.Uncountable nouns are used to describe a quality, action, thing or substance that can be poured or measured. Non-Count nouns also refer to a whole category made up of different varieties or a whole group of things that is made up of many individual parts. Uncountable nouns are always singular.
Concrete nouns refer to things which you can sense such as clock and telephone.
Abstract nouns refer to ideas or qualities such as liberty and truth.
Many common nouns, like "engineer" or "teacher," can refer to men or women. Once, many English nouns would change form depending on their gender -- for example, a man was called an "author" while a woman was called an "authoress" -- but this use of gender-specific nouns is very rare today. Those that are still used occasionally tend to refer to occupational categories.
Common nouns such as "school," "business," or "person" designate an entire class [of things]. Proper nouns, on the other hand, designate a specific example of a class: Towson University, Black and Decker Company, Joe. Proper nouns are capitalized.
Most nouns change their form to indicate number by adding "-s" or "-es". There are other nouns which form the plural by changing the last letter before adding "s". Some words ending in "f" form the plural by deleting "f" and adding "ves," and words ending in "y" form the plural by deleting the "y" and adding "ies."
In addition, nouns can be identified by the presence of signal words such as the. Word order can also provide clues about nouns. Often, suffixes will suggest that a word is a noun. For example, -tion, -ness, -ment, or -er at the end of a word usually signify that the word is a noun, as in "suggestion," "happiness," "involvement," and "diner." Nouns show ownership with the addition of an apostrophe and, sometimes, an additional -s, as in "a book's pages," "twenty students' essays."
A noun is a part of speech that names a person, place, thing, idea, or activity. Some nouns are specific for people, places, or events; and some represent groups or collections. Nouns can be singular, referring to one thing, or plural, referring to more than one thing. Nouns can be possessive, indicating ownership or a close relationship. Regardless of the type, nouns should always agree with their verbs in sentences. Use singular verbs with singular nouns and plural verbs with plural nouns. You have to know how a noun works in order to write an effective sentence.