In grammar, a part of speech is a linguistic category of words (or lexical items) that is generally defined by syntactic or morphological behavior. Common linguistic categories include noun and verb, among others. There are open word classes and closed ones. Academics and grammarians recognize anywhere between two and twelve parts of speech.
The grammatical structure called an expletive is more often described by its function—the null subject, the dummy subject, or the existential subject—because it takes the part of subject in a sentence, referring to a real subject used later in the sentence. It is a rhetorical device that is not really a part of speech because it carries no meaning itself. The expletives there and it are used with a form of the verb be to postpone the subject until after the verb; however, it is often possible to avoid using the expletive.
An article conveys information about the noun. While a, an, and the are called articles, they function much like adjectives.
Interjections are flavouring particles used in speech to indicate emotion, or provide transition.
Prepositions are words that show the relationship between two things. Prepositions of time show a relationship between the action in a sentence and when it will happen. Several prepositions can be used to give the relationship between an object and a place. Prepositions that introduce objects work closely with verbs.
A conjunction is a word that "joins". A conjunction joins two parts of a sentence.Coordinating Conjunctions: and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so. Subordinating Conjunctions: although, because, since, unless.
There are seven types of pronouns. They are: Personal, Reflexive, Demonstrative, Indefinite, Reciprocal, Relative and Interrogative.
Pronouns are words that substitute for nouns. Every pronoun must have a clear antecedent (the word for which the pronoun stands).
Adverbs are traditionally defined as words that describe verbs. Adverbs answer any of the following questions about verbs: How? When? Where? Why? Most adverbs end in -ly. In fact, most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to adjectives. Like adjectives of more than one syllable, adverbs usually become comparative and superlative by using more and most.
Adjectives can express degrees of modification: "Gladys is a rich woman, but Josie is richer than Gladys, and Sadie is the richest woman in town." The degrees of comparison are known as the positive, the comparative, and the superlative. We use the comparative for comparing two things and the superlative for comparing three or more things. Notice that the word than frequently accompanies the comparative and the word the precedes the superlative.
Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence. Unlike Adverbs, which often seem capable of popping up almost anywhere in a sentence, adjectives nearly always appear immediately before the noun or noun phrase that they modify. Sometimes they appear in a string of adjectives, and when they do, they appear in a set order according to category.
Verbs can have moods, which indicate the attitude of the speaker. Some writers have problems with verbs as the result of an incorrect tense or irregular verbs. Verbs play a key role in constructing sentences.
A verb is a part of speech that expresses action or state of being, or connects a subject to a complement. Verbs indicate whether the subject performs an action (active voice) or receives the action (passive voice). Verbs can be transitive (requires a direct object) or intransitive (does not require an object). The tenses of verbs are formed according to person, number, and tense.
The nouns that name classes of things are common nouns; the nouns (and other types of expression) that name individual things are proper nouns: "printer" is a common noun; "Denver" is a proper noun. In English, we conventionally capitalize the initial letter of proper nouns.
A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Nouns are usually the first words which small children learn.
THE MAJOR PARTS OF SPEECH: NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS: The major parts of speech contribute the major “content” to a message, and hence are sometimes called content words, as opposed to other parts of speech known as function or structure words. The content words are the ones that we see in newspaper headlines where space is at a premium and they are the words we tend to keep in text messaging where costs per word can be high. However, in most types of discourse, function words significantly outnumber content words.
Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech: the verb, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection. Each part of speech explains not what the word is, but how the word is used. In fact, the same word can be a noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next.