David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930) was an English novelist, poet, playwright, essayist, literary critic and painter who published as D. H. Lawrence. His collected works represent an extended reflection upon the dehumanising effects of modernity and industrialisation.
In late life Lawrence stated he had a "fresh start." However, he would die shortly after this declaration, but some of his poems would be published following his death.
Lawrence's girlfriend, Jessie Chambers, and other local friends encouraged his literary aspirations, and she sent some of his poems to Ford Madox Hueffer, which were published in the English Review in 1909.
"Lawrence’s treatment of the life of the working classes continues themes from naturalism, but his approach to these themes is less distanced and analytical than that of Emile Zola or Arnold Bennett. His primitivism arises in part from his effort to engulf himself in the passions that Zola preferred to study from a clinical point of view."
"Lawrence developed a number of theories about the flaws of modern civilization that helped to justify his literary endeavors. He continually sought the means to overcome the alienation typical of industrialized society through a fusion of man with woman, man with man, and man with nature."
Chamber's actions were the breakthrough Lawrence needed. Hueffer not only printed those poems, but saw Lawrence, and – after reading the manuscript of The White Peacock – wrote to the publisher William Heinemann recommending it. He also got Lawrence to write more about his mining background.
The year 1911 was the year The White Peacock was published. It was also a trying year. He mourned his mother, was unhappy in his engagement, and missed Jessie Chambers' support.
The Eastwood setting, the contrast between mining town and unspoiled countryside, the life and culture of the miners, the strife between his parents, and its effect on his tortured relationship with Jessie all became themes of Lawrence's early short stories and novels.
In 1911 and 1912 Lawrence decided to give up teaching and live by writing. He also fell in love and eloped with Frieda Weekley, after ending his engagement to a woman named Louie Burrows.
He was the fourth son of a coal-miner and a mother who had trained as a school-teacher. Despite their early attraction, Lawrence's parents were not well matched. His mother encouraged the early evidence of his gifts as a way of fulfilling her own frustrated ambitions.
In late life Lawrence wrote in tow notebooks. However, it is unclear what his intentions for those notebooks were, as they shared the same drafts of poems.