The Framework or Ohrid Agreement was the culmination of negotiations that sought to end immediately hostilities between the ethnic Albanian National Liberation Army (NLA, ONA in Macedonian, UCK in Albanian) and Macedonian government security forces (USIP 30 Nov. 2002).
The Dayton Proximity Talks culminated in the initialing of a General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was initialed by the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY).
The Good Friday Agreement was little short of an historic breakthrough. The 65-page document, signed in 1998, sought to address relationships within Northern Ireland; between Northern Ireland and the Republic; and between both parts of Ireland and England, Scotland and Wales.
The birthplace of consociationalism is the Netherlands, where Arend Lijphart first hammered out the theory. And it was the Netherlands that provided one of the earliest, if not the earliest, and surely one of the most successful consociational arrangements in practice.
Generally, the four key elements of consociationalism are said to be: (1) the sharing of executive power among representatives of all significant groups; (2) communal autonomy, in which each group has a great deal of internal self-government, coupled with equality between the divided communities; (3) proportional representation and allocation of important resources and offices in society, such as positions in the civil service and judiciary; and (4) an explicit (p. 316 ) minority veto on vital issues, resulting in practice in a mutual veto being able to be operated in practice by both the majority and minority community.
Political constitutionalism seeks the restoration of the dignity of politics through a return to values of democratic participation, deliberation and engagement as the best way to secure the normative potential of democratic life.
A key feature of consociational power-sharing is the mutual veto, whereby decisions are only made with the widest possible consent and only with a near consensus.
The key feature of consociationalism is that it is a power sharing arrangement encompassing a set of institutional devices (proportionality, grand coalition, mutual veto etc.) as well as related cooperative attitudes of political elites in segmented societies, leading them to transcend the borders of their own groups, to be receptive to the claims of others and to accommodate the divergent interests and claims of the segments
Consociationalism stands in contrast to the concept of 'majoritarian democracy.'1 Majoritarian systems call for the integration of minority groups and the distribution of individual rights solely. However, the consociationalist approach consists in accommodating minorities, by granting them collective rights.
Consociationalism is a form of democracy which seeks to regulate the sharing of power in a state that comprises diverse societies (distinct ethnic, religious, political, national or linguistic groups), by allocating these groups collective rights. The executive-power sharing is mainly characterized by proportional representation, veto rights and segmental autonomy for minority groups.