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Consociationalism

Consociationalism

This knowledge card explains and gives examples of a form of power-sharing called consociationalism.

 

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Luke Maloney

Luke Maloney

45 Knowledge Cards

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The Framework or Ohrid Agreement was the culmination of negotiations that sought to end immediately hostilities between the ethnic Albanian National Liberation Army (NLA, ONA in Macedonian, UCK in Albanian) and Macedonian government security forces (USIP 30 Nov. 2002).

Article: Macedonia: Implementation...
Source: UNHCR
Luke Maloney

Luke Maloney

45 Knowledge Cards 

The Ohrid Agreement established the framework for power-sharing in the Republic of Macedonia, another example of a divided society some-what remedied by consociationalism.

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The Dayton Proximity Talks culminated in the initialing of a General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was initialed by the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY).

Article: Summary of the Dayton Pea...
Source: Summary of the Dayton Pea...
Luke Maloney

Luke Maloney

45 Knowledge Cards 

The Dayton Agreement that ended the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina is an example of consociationalism. It ended the conflict looking for each side to coexist and respect each other's sovereign equality.

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The Good Friday Agreement was little short of an historic breakthrough. The 65-page document, signed in 1998, sought to address relationships within Northern Ireland; between Northern Ireland and the Republic; and between both parts of Ireland and England, Scotland and Wales.

Article: BBC News | Northern Irela...
Source: BBC News
Luke Maloney

Luke Maloney

45 Knowledge Cards 

Also known as the Belfast Agreement this was an attempt at Consociationalism. It granted the Ulster Unionist, SDLP, and Sinn Fein leadership equal rights in Northern Ireland's government, a country that has been in turmoil for almost a century. 

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The birthplace of consociationalism is the Netherlands, where Arend Lijphart first hammered out the theory. And it was the Netherlands that provided one of the earliest, if not the earliest, and surely one of the most successful consociational arrangements in practice.

Article: Consociationalism
Source: Balkanalysis

Generally, the four key elements of consociationalism are said to be: (1) the sharing of executive power among representatives of all significant groups; (2) communal autonomy, in which each group has a great deal of internal self-government, coupled with equality between the divided communities; (3) proportional representation and allocation of important resources and offices in society, such as positions in the civil service and judiciary; and (4) an explicit (p. 316 ) minority veto on vital issues, resulting in practice in a mutual veto being able to be operated in practice by both the majority and minority community.

Article: Consociationalism
Source: Consociationalism
Luke Maloney

Luke Maloney

45 Knowledge Cards 

Without all four of these elements consociationalism does not function properly. Each group must have proper representation and the same say in government or the concept will not work. 

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Political constitutionalism seeks the restoration of the dignity of politics through a return to values of democratic participation, deliberation and engagement as the best way to secure the normative potential of democratic life.

Article: Tag Archives: Consociatio...
Source: UK Constitutional Law Gro...

A key feature of consociational power-sharing is the mutual veto, whereby decisions are only made with the widest possible consent and only with a near consensus.

Article: Power Sharing | Beyond In...
Source: Beyond Intractability

The key feature of consociationalism is that it is a power sharing arrangement encompassing a set of institutional devices (proportionality, grand coalition, mutual veto etc.) as well as related cooperative attitudes of political elites in segmented societies, leading them to transcend the borders of their own groups, to be receptive to the claims of others and to accommodate the divergent interests and claims of the segments

Article: Balkanalysis.com
Source: Balkanalysis
Luke Maloney

Luke Maloney

45 Knowledge Cards 

This does not mean that groups have to agree with each other and compromise, but it does mean all groups have to be heard and have equal representation and voting power. 

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Consociationalism stands in contrast to the concept of 'majoritarian democracy.'1 Majoritarian systems call for the integration of minority groups and the distribution of individual rights solely. However, the consociationalist approach consists in accommodating minorities, by granting them collective rights.

Article: Consociationalism
Source: Consociationalism

Consociationalism is a form of democracy which seeks to regulate the sharing of power in a state that comprises diverse societies (distinct ethnic, religious, political, national or linguistic groups), by allocating these groups collective rights. The executive-power sharing is mainly characterized by proportional representation, veto rights and segmental autonomy for minority groups.

Article: Consociationalism - Reut ...
Source: Consociationalism - Reut ...
Luke Maloney

Luke Maloney

45 Knowledge Cards 

There are many theories or power-sharing but consociationalism is regarded as the most popular form throughout the world.

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