Zimbabwe is a landlocked country located in the southern part of the African continent, between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers. It is bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the southwest, Zambia and a tip of Namibia to the northwest (making this area a quadripoint) and Mozambique to the east.
The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the [British] South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia).
The government of Zimbabwe, led by President Mugabe since 1980, has attracted intense international criticism in recent years. Mugabe’s rule has been marked by corruption, human rights abuses and media repression, all of which have had an impact on the AIDS epidemic.
UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence. His chaotic land redistribution campaign, which began in 2000, caused an exodus of white farmers, crippled the economy, and ushered in widespread shortages of basic commodities.
The first reported case of AIDS in Zimbabwe occurred in 1985. By the end of the 1980s, around 10% of the adult population were thought to be infected with HIV.9 This figure rose dramatically in the first half of the 1990s, peaking at 26.5% in 1997.10 But since this point the HIV prevalence is thought to have declined, making Zimbabwe one of the first African nations to witness such a trend. According to government figures, the adult prevalence was 23.7% in 2001, and fell to 14.3% in 2010.11
the mania for printing money brought Zimbabwe's economy within an inch of annihilation. Confounding money with wealth, ravaging incomes, destroying the basis of savings, enshrining the god of consumption, ruining creditors, impoverishing many, enriching a few, undermining exchange with other nations, fostering uncertainty, causing millions to flee, and smothering productive forces, the government of Zimbabwe achieved, through the debauching of the currency, a feat of frightful devastation.
It is bounded by Zambia (797km) in the north and northwest, by South Africa (225km) in the south by Mozambique (1231km) in the east and north-east, and by Botswana (813km)in the south-west.
It is home to the magnificent Victoria Falls, the mighty Zambezi River and Hwange National Park, one of Africa's best safari destinations.
Since early 2000, political violence and dramatic economic contraction have displaced people within and beyond Zimbabwe's borders on an extraordinary scale. The politicised state intrusions into Zimbabwean rural and urban economies, the dramatic disintegration of public services, rampant hyperinflation, destruction and redistribution of assets (planned and unplanned) have all had more than simply local effects.
Despite majority rule and the existence of a "willing-buyer-willing-seller" land reform programme since the 1980s, whites made up less than 1% of the population but held about 70% of the most arable land.
the nationalist-military alliance that made the Zimbabwe government came under fire at the turn of the millennium It was accused of neglecting international norms and standards adopted by the governance in the 21st century.
In Zimbabwe too, structural adjustment in the 1990's marked the beginning of the process of the informalisation of everything, producing urban disaffection, strikes and protests, and provoking the government to concede to and accommodate a range of informal practices through deregulation and new enabling statutes in a process of negotiation that differed notably from the later miliatary-style 'Operations' and inflexible application of 'legislation.'