Bosnia and Herzegovina (i/ˈbɒzniə ən hɛrtsəɡoʊˈviːnə/; Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Sarajevo.
Sarajevo is the capital city. Other cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina include Banja Luka, Doboj, Mostar, Tuzla and Zenica.
Forty percent of the people are Muslim, just over thirty percent belong to the Orthodox Church and around fifteen percent are Roman Catholic.
Architecture in the capital city of Sarajevo is diverse. Monuments from the Ottoman and Austrian-Hungarian eras stand together with buildings from the twentieth century.
Bosnian (bosanski jezik) sometimes referred as Bosniak/Bosniac language is a South Slavic language native to the Bosniak people and all other citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina who consider it to be their mother tongue. The language is notably spoken in the areas of Bosnia, the Bosniak-dominated region of Sandzak (in Serbia and Montenegro) and elsewhere. It is one of the standard versions of the Central-South Slavic diasystem which covers the region that was once known as Serbo-Croat from the 19th century until the early 1990s. The standard Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian languages are all mutually intelligible.
More than 95% of population of Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to one of its three constitutive ethnic groups: Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats . The term constitutive refers to the fact that these three ethnic groups are explicitly mentioned in the constitution, and that none of them can be considered a minority or immigrant.
International Disputes: Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro have delimited most of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute; discussions continue with Croatia on several small disputed sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinder ratification of the 1999 border agreement
Constitution: the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its own constitution
Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs.
Natural resources: Hydropower, coal, iron ore, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper, chromium, lead, zinc, cobalt, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, forests, alumina.
Climate: Hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters in the southeast.