Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of Central Europe, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb.The country's population is 4.29 million, most of whom are Croats.
It was announced that ruling Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) is being investigated for corruption. Ivo Sanader, the former head of the HDZ and prime minister went on trial and independent Croatia’s first interior minister was arrested on charges of murders allegedly committed in 1945. (He denies all wrongdoing).
Croatia serves as a gateway to eastern Europe. It lies along the east coast of the Adriatic Sea and shares a border with Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, and Slovenia. The republic has a distinct boomerang shape, arching from the Pannonian Plains of Slavonia between the Sava, Drava, and Danube Rivers, across hilly, central Croatia to the Istrian Peninsula, then south through Dalmatia along the rugged Adriatic coast. Croatia is made up of 20 counties plus the city of Zagreb and controls 1,185 islands in the Adriatic Sea, 67 of which are inhabited.
Climate in Croatia: Northern Croatia has a continental climate; Central Croatia has a semi-highland and highland climate, while the Croatian coast has a Mediterranean climate. Winter temperatures range from -1 to 30°C in the continental region, -5 to 0°C in the mountain region and 5 to 10°C in the coastal region. Summer temperatures range from 22 to 26°C in the continental region, 15 to 20°C in the mountain region and 26 to 30°C in the coastal region.
A crescent-shaped country in southeast Europe, Croatia extends from the fertile plains of the Danube to the mountainous coast of the Adriatic Sea. In the Adriatic, Croatia has 1,185 islands—many are major tourist areas. The 1991-95 civil war between Croats and Serbs caused massive damage to cities and industries. War halted the tourist trade and drastically cut industrial output, including a lucrative ship-building business. Since the war, Croatia has progressed politically and economically; it applied for European Union membership in 2003.
The Croatian Parliament, also known as the Sabor, became a unicameral body after its upper house (Chamber of Counties) was eliminated by constitutional amendment in March 2001. The remaining body, the Chamber of Representatives, consists of 153 members who serve 4-year terms elected by direct vote. The Sabor includes 140 members from 10 geographic districts within Croatia (each district holds 14 seats), as well as eight seats guaranteed to representatives of national minorities (three for the Serb minority, and five for other smaller groups), and seats for Croatians abroad without fixed residence in Croatia, the large majority of whom reside in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Croatia has a three-tiered judicial system, consisting of the Supreme Court, county courts, and municipal courts. Croatia's Supreme Court is the highest court in the republic. The Supreme Court assures the uniform application of laws. Members of the high court are appointed by the National Judicial Council, a body of 11 members, and justices on the Supreme Court are appointed for life.
Croats made up 78% of the population at last estimates. Serbs were 12% and Muslims 0.9%. Hungarians accounted for 0.5%; Slovenians for 0.5%; and others 8.1%. A 1991 law guarantees Serbs autonomy in areas where they constitute the majority, but only after permanent peace is achieved.
More recently, fighting caused massive infrastructure and industrial damage to bridges, power lines, factories, buildings, and houses. Croatia's economy also had to grapple with a large population of refugees and internally displaced persons. As a result of the war and loss in output capacity, GDP fell by more than 40%.
ZAGREB, the capital of Croatia, -situated on the slopes of Medvednica Mountain (Zagrebacka Gora) and along the banks of the Sava river; elevation 120 m; population 706,770.
The name of the Croatian monetary unit is KUNA (KN), which has 100 lipas. The meaning of KUNA is - a marten - its skin had been used as a unit in trade. The earliest mention we know of is from the year 1018, on the island of Cres. The first known use of kuna on a Croatian coin goes as far back as 1256, when a local currency displaying kuna was issued in Slavonia.