Georgia i/ˈdʒɔrdʒə/ (Georgian: საქართველო sak’art’velo, IPA: [sakʰartʰvɛlɔ] ( listen)) is a sovereign state in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan.
Georgia is a multiparty republic operating under the constitution of 1995 as amended. The executive branch is headed by the president, who is elected by popular vote for a five-year term and has direct control over those governmental bodies responsible for national security; the prime minister is reponsible for managing the nation's economic policies. There is a popularly elected 235-member parliament.
Georgian is the official language. There has been a standard Georgian literary language since about the 5th century. Russian is also widely spoken.
More than two thirds of the population are Georgiansa people who speak a language related to the Ibero-Caucasian family of languages. Armenians, Azeris, and Russians are the other major ethnic groups, with Ossetians, Abkhazians, and Adjars in smaller numbers.
Traditionally an agricultural land - quite famous for its wines - tourism is on the front-burner in Georgia as international travel has increased - especially along the Black Sea coastal areas.
In 1922, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan were annexed by the USSR and formed the Transcaucasian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1936, Georgia became a separate Soviet republic. Under Soviet rule, the country was transformed from an agrarian to a largely industrial, urban society.
Georgia is bordered by the Black Sea in the west, by Turkey and Armenia in the south, by Azerbaijan in the east, and Russia in the north. The republic also includes the Abkhazia and Ajara autonomous republics and South Ossetia.
Georgia's main economic activities include the cultivation of agricultural products such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese and copper; and output of a small industrial sector producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, aircraft and chemicals
Natural resources include timber, hydro-power, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth
Terrain includes largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
Located in Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia, with a sliver of land north of the Caucasus extending into Europe; note - Georgia views itself as part of Europe