Two stages of Vietnam drug use are identified-a period of increasing marijuana use followed by the 1970 influx of highly potent heroin to which 1/5 of the enlisted troops were addicted at some time during their tour. The major contributing factors appear to be: (1) the need of troops in stressful combat situations for self-medication, escape, and hedonistic indulgence; (2) the relaxation of taboos against drug use in the United States; and (3) the availability of illicit drugs at low cost, which was apparently the result of profiteering by a number of South Vietnamese officials. Related to the above was the growing disenchantment with the war and the progressive deterioration in unit morale. These drugs are seen as serving many of the functions performed by alcohol in earlier millitary conflicts. There is no hard evidence that duty performance in Vietnam was seriously affected by drug use. Since 95% of those who were addicted to narcotics in Vietnam have not become readdicted, the situation does not appear to be as severe as originally supposed. Myths as to the persistence and intractibility of physiological narcotic addiction were dispelled. A major negative effect has been the difficulty that soldiers with less-than-honorable discharges due to drug abuse have had in obtaining jobs. Other long-term effects from drug use are less clear and are difficult to separate from the overall effects of the war.
POPULAR CULTURAL FESTIVALS OF VIETNAM
The 2nd day of the 1st month: Wrestling Festival in Lieu Doi, Nam Ha.
The 5th day of the 1st month: Festival of Dong Da hill, Hanoi: celebrate the anniversary of King Quang Trung's victory over 290,000 Qing invaders to liberate Thang Long (now Hanoi).
The 6th day of the 1st month: Festival of Eel-Catching in Pot in Ving Lac district, Vinh Phu province. This reflects the farmers' love for labor and the joy over bumper crops.
The 10th day of the 1st month: Festival in Trieu Khuc village, Hanoi. Cultural activities of a traditional handicraft village.
The 13th day of the 1st month: Lim Festival, Ha Bac. Festival of quan ho folk song singing. Boys and girls meet on river bank, on hill or in the yards of village's communal house and pagoda and exchange emotions.
The 15th day of the 1st month: Festival of Spring on Ba Den mountain.
The 15th of 2nd month (formal date): Festival of Huong Pagoda, Ha Tay: Traditional festival lasting over 2 months.
Spring festival of buffalo fighting in Tay Nguyen Highlands highlighting the martial spirit of the ethnic minority people.
The 10th day of the 3rd month: Festival of Hung Temple celebrating the death a anniversary of Kings Hung.
The 9th day of the 4th month: Giong Festival, Hanoi, commemorating Saint Giong, a legendary child hero who defeated foreign invasion and saved the nation.
The 26th day of the 4th month: Festival of Queen Su in Chau Doc.
The 5th day of the 5th month: Water Festival in Nha Trang. People in the city go to the beach and have a bath for health improvement.
The 16th day of the 6th month: Festival of Nghinh Ong in Tien Giang - Ben Tre.
The 30th day of the 7th month: Festival at Lang Ong, Ho Chi Minh City.
The 9th day of the 8th month: Buffalo fighting festival, Do Son, Hai Phong.
The 13th day of the 9th month:Festival of Keo Pagoda, Thai Binh. Traditional communal festival.
The 22nd day of the 11th month:Festival of Dong Quan in Chan Tien Pagoda, Hanoi.
In 1976 Vietnam became the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Saigon, in the south, was renamed Ho Chi Minh City.
At the end of the War, hundreds of thousands of refugees left Vietnam; many sailing in boats to Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Indonesia and Australia.
In 1978 Vietnamese forces invaded Cambodia; the People's Republic of Kampuchea was established. Vietnamese troops left Cambodia in 1989 and a peace agreement was signed in 1991.
In 2000 President Bill Clinton made an official visit to Vietnam and pledged to help clear landmines remaining from the War.
A number of people lost their lives when the worst floods for twenty years hit parts of Vietnam in 2008. Crops were destroyed and water supplies contaminated.
Where is Vietnam?
Vietnam is in South-eastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, alongside China, Laos, and Cambodia.
What is the Capital of Vietnam?
What is the official language of Vietnam?
The official language of Vietnam is Vietnamese.
When are the Public Holidays in Vietnam?
Independence Day, 2 September (1945).
What is the flag of Vietnam?
Flag of VietnamRed with a large yellow five-pointed star in the centre.
Between 1945 and 1954, the Vietnamese waged an anti-colonial war against France and received $2.6 billion in financial support from the United States. The French defeat at the Dien Bien Phu was followed by a peace conference in Geneva, in which Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam received their independence and Vietnam was temporarily divided between an anti-Communist South and a Communist North. In 1956, South Vietnam, with American backing, refused to hold the unification elections. By 1958, Communist-led guerrillas known as the Viet Cong had begun to battle the South Vietnamese government.
To support the South’s government, the United States sent in 2,000 military advisors, a number that grew to 16,300 in 1963. The military condition deteriorated, and by 1963 South Vietnam had lost the fertile Mekong Delta to the Vietcong. In 1965, Johnson escalated the war, commencing air strikes on North Vietnam and committing ground forces, which numbered 536,000 in 1968. The 1968 Tet Offensive by the North Vietnamese turned many Americans against the war. The next president, Richard Nixon, advocated Vietnamization, withdrawing American troops and giving South Vietnam greater responsibility for fighting the war. His attempt to slow the flow of North Vietnamese soldiers and supplies into South Vietnam by sending American forces to destroy Communist supply bases in Cambodia in 1970 in violation of Cambodian neutrality provoked antiwar protests on the nation’s college campuses.
From 1968 to 1973 efforts were made to end the conflict through diplomacy. In January 1973, an agreement reached and U.S. forces were withdrawn from Vietnam and U.S. prisoners of war were released. In April 1975, South Vietnam surrendered to the North and Vietnam was reunited.
Vietnam's economic growth rate slowed to 5.9 percent and annual inflation soared in 2011 even as the government focused on fighting higher prices by tightening bank lending.
Inflation [cnbc explains] rate doubled, rising to 18.53 percent this year compared with 9.19 percent in 2010, government data showed on Friday.
"The GDP [cnbc explains] growth in 2011 at around 5.9 percent is relatively high under the circumstance of efforts to control inflation," the government said in a report seen by Reuters on Friday. This compares to GDP growth of 6.78 percent in 2010.
The consumer price index (CPI) in December grew 18.13 percent against the same month last year, easing from an annual rise of 19.83 percent in November, the government's General Statistics Office said in its monthly report.
Vietnam is located between 9 and 23 degrees north. Eastern Vietnam has a long coastline on the Gulf of Tonkin and the South China Sea. It has a tropical monsoon type of climate; from May-Sep the south monsoon sets in, and the country is dominated by south to southeasterly winds. From Oct-April, the north monsoon is dominant with northerly to northeasterly winds affecting the country. There is a transition period between each monsoon season when winds are light and variable.
The country is mountainous in the northwest and in the central highlands facing the South China Sea, with peaks reaching up to 8000ft (2450m) In the north around Hanoi and in the south around Ho Chi Minh City, there are extensive low-lying regions in the Red River delta and the Mekong delta respectively.
Vietnam has a single rainy season during the south monsoon (May-Sep). Rainfall is infrequent and light during the remainder of the year. Rainfall is abundant, with annual rainfall exceeding 1000mm almost everywhere. Annual rainfall is even higher in the hills, especially those facing the sea, in the range of 2000-2500mm
Vietnamese food constitutes a distinct cuisine in its own right, with the liberal use of fish sauce (nuoc mam), the preference for fresh herbs, and the unique wrapping of small pieces of meat or vegetables in lettuce or rice paper as its hallmarks. The chief influence of Vietnamese cuisine comes from China, which among other things, is evident in the use of chop sticks. Spices from India have found their way into Vietnamese dishes via its neighboring countries Laos and Cambodia, while the Europeans brought tomatoes, peanuts, coffee, baguettes, yogurt, and butter.
The main staples of Vietnamese cuisine are rice (also used for making noodles), coconut, ginger, garlic, chilies, and copious amounts of fish sauce and fresh herbs. A large variety of fruits and vegetables are grown in Vietnam, from exotic durians to strawberries, and they are used to great effect in sweet and savory dishes. Vietnamese cooks employ a number of different cooking methods, including stir-frying, steaming, stewing (in clay pots), and grilling. Fish, beef, pork, and poultry are eaten with great gusto, as are other sources of protein, such as dogs, frogs, field rats, snakes, baby birds, and monkeys, to name just a few.
Independent for almost a thousand years, Vietnam fell prey to French colonialism in the mid-19th century. During Japanese occupation in World War II, communist leader Ho Chi Minh formed the Vietminh, an alliance of communist and noncommunist nationalist groups. Armed struggle won independence in 1954 and led to the partition of Vietnam.
For two decades noncommunist South Vietnam, aided by the U.S., fought North Vietnam, backed by China and the Soviet Union. American troops withdrew in 1973, and two years later South Vietnam fell. In 1976 the country was reunified under a communist regime.
To replace support lost when the U.S.S.R. dissolved, economic policy encouraged a free-market system as well as trade with the West. Vietnam saw dramatic economic progress throughout most of the 1990s. In 1995 the U.S. resumed diplomatic relations. Economic growth stalled, however, with the Asian financial crisis. A stock exchange was launched in 2000, and Vietnam has seen increasing levels of foreign investment.
The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became part of French Indochina in 1887. Vietnam declared independence after World War II, but France continued to rule until its 1954 defeat by Communist forces under Ho Chi MINH. Under the Geneva Accords of 1954, Vietnam was divided into the Communist North and anti-Communist South. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government, but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later, North Vietnamese forces overran the South reuniting the country under Communist rule. Despite the return of peace, for over a decade the country experienced little economic growth because of conservative leadership policies, the persecution and mass exodus of individuals - many of them successful South Vietnamese merchants - and growing international isolation