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Munich Agreement

Munich Agreement

The Munich Pact was an agreement permitting the Nazi German annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland. The Sudetenland were areas along Czech borders, mainly inhabited by ethnic Germans. The agreement was negotiated at a conference held in Munich, Germany, among the major powers of Europe without the presence of Czechoslovakia.

 

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The Munich Agreement was in breach of the well established principle of sovereign equality of states. It aimed at cession of a territory whose territorial sovereign was not a signatory thereof. Its purpose was directly aimed at violating territorial integrity and political independence of Czechoslovakia.

Article: International Law Observe...
Source: 70th Anniversary of the I...

The Munich Agreement was just another step towards the Second World War. First was the annexation of Austria in March 1938, then the seizure of Sudetenland in September 1938, followed by the Nazi occupation of the remaining parts Bohemia and Moravia in March 1939. Next step was Poland.

Article: Munich Agreement 1938 (Pa...
Source: Prague Blog

Finally, in 1973 the Treaty of Prague between Czechoslovakia and the Federal Republic of Germany declared the Munich Agreement to be null and void. The Signatories also agreed that their borders were inviolable and that they would not use force against one another.

Article: International Law Observe...
Source: 70th Anniversary of the I...

Given the political situation, the Government had no other option but to accept it. Nullity of the Agreement may also be inferred from that its imposition or consent with was in manifest breach of Czechoslovak constitutional law which required previous Parliamentary approval.

Article: International Law Observe...
Source: 70th Anniversary of the I...

March 1939, Germany overran what remained of Czechoslovakia, and made it the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Autonomous Slovakia became a satellite state of the Reich. The arms industry of the former Czechoslovakia spent the war years working for the Wehrmacht, producing hundreds of thousands of small arms, tens of thousands of artillery pieces, and thousands of aircraft, tanks, and self-propelled gun mounts.

Article: Voices from Russia
Source: Voices from Russia

Despite a well-developed munitions industry, an army little short of the German army in size {on mobilisation the Czech army had 36 infantry divisions plus fortress troops in the Sudeten Mountain fortress zone: editor}, and armaments of superb quality, the Czechoslovak National Assembly accepted the Munich decisions for implementation

Article: Voices from Russia
Source: Voices from Russia

30 September 1938:

At Munich, France and Britain agree to give Hitler the Sudetenland.
Chamberlain waves 'a piece of paper' with Hitler's statement that he does not want to go to war. German troops march into the Sudetenland, and are welcomed as heroes.

Article: The story of the Sudetenl...
Source: BBC

The results of Munich Agreement for Czechoslovakia were desolating. The Czechoslovakia not only had to give up 30 per cent of its territory and 34 per cent of its citizens to Nazi Germany, but by doing so it lost 70 per cent of its iron and steel and 70 per cent of its electrical power.

Article: Munich Agreement 1938 (Pa...
Source: Prague Blog

As it was clear that the Czechoslovak army would not withstand the Nazi “Wehrmacht” on its own, the Czechoslovak government capitulated. The Sudetenland was soon legally occupied by Nazi Germany.

Article: Munich Agreement 1938 (Pa...
Source: Prague Blog

The Munich Agreement was signed early morning on the 30th of September by France, Britain, Italy and Germany. Hitler gained exactly what he wanted. The Czechoslovak government was informed about the results of the meeting and was strongly recommended to fulfill the agreement.

Article: Munich Agreement 1938 (Pa...
Source: Prague Blog
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