War breaks out and Serbs quickly assume control of over half the republic. Ethnic cleansing is rampant in the newly proclaimed Serb Republic but also widespread in Muslim and Croat-controlled areas.
It was the breakup of Yugoslavia that opened the door to war by forcing the question of the self-determination of Bonsia-Herzegovina and its respective nationalities.
Croat and Muslim nationalists form tactical alliance and outvote Serbs at independence referendum. Serb nationalists are incensed as constitution stipulates that all major decisions must be reached through consensus
Nationally, Bosnia has three major ethnic divisions — Bosniaks, who are predominantly Muslim; Croats, who are predominantly Catholic Christians; and Serbs, who are predominantly Orthodox Christians.
On August 30, 1995, effective military intervention finally began as the U.S. led a massive NATO bombing campaign in response to the killings at Srebrenica, targeting Serbian artillery positions throughout Bosnia.
The conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina was the first major test in the post-Cold War period of the ability of the international community to resolve ethnic conflicts.
Among all the horrors Mladic is charged with, foremost is the July 1995 slaughter of up to 8,000 Muslim men and boys in the Bosnian town of Srebrenica, which was supposed to be a safe zone guarded by Dutch peacekeepers.
The 1995 Dayton peace agreement divided Bosnia into two semi-independent entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, inhabited mainly by Bosnian Muslims and Bosnian Croats, and the Serb-dominated Republika Srpska
Between 1992 and 1996, Bosnian Serb forces bombarded the city of Sarajevo in what was the longest siege in the history of modern warfare
The Bosnian War was one of the most destructive of the late 20th century. Of a population of around four million people in 1992, two million were made refugees. In the three and a half years of conflict, more than 100,000 were killed.