Enzymes are the catalysts of life. They are the link between higher forms of biological structure cells, organisms, ecosystems- and the physical universe. They form such links by allowing incredible reactions to occur. Reactions that harvest energy for a cell, reactions that detoxify harmful substances, and create organic matter from decomposition.
The most important reasons to use enzymes in detergents are i) that a very small quantity of these inexhaustible bio-catalysts can replace very large quantity of man made chemicals and ii) enzymes can work at very low temperature at which traditional chemistry quite often is no longer effective iii) they are fully biodegradable. All these characteristics make enzymes - on top of their high efficiency - environmentally friendly ingredients.
Many fungal species are considered to be suitable for the removal of chlorinated phenolic compounds from the contaminated environments. The activity of fungi is mainly due to the action of extracellular oxidoreductase enzymes, like laccase, manganese peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase, which are released from fungal mycelium into their nearby environment. Being filamentous, fungi can reach the soil pollutants more effectively than bacteria
Many bacteria reduce the radioactive metals from an oxidized soluble form to a reduced insoluble form. During the process of energy production, bacterium takes up electrons from organic compounds and use radioactive metal as the final electron acceptor. Some of bacterial species reduce the radioactive metals indirectly with the help of an intermediate electron donor.
The detoxification of toxic organic compounds by various bacteria and fungi  and higher plants  through oxidative coupling is mediated with oxidoreductases. Microbes extract energy via energy-yielding biochemical reactions mediated by these enzymes to cleave chemical bonds and to assist the transfer of electrons from a reduced organic substrate (donor) to another chemical compound (acceptor). During such oxidation-reduction reactions, the contaminants are finally oxidized to harmless compounds (ITRC 2002).
Enzymes are biological catalysts that facilitate the conversion of substrates into products by providing favorable conditions that lower the activation energy of the reaction. An enzyme may be a protein or a glycoprotein and consists of at least one polypeptide moiety.
Enzymes are specific to a substrate and have active sites that bind with the substrate to form a temporary complex. The enzymatic reaction releases a product, which can be a nutrient contained in the substrate.
Soil enzymes increase the reaction rate at which plant residues decompose and release plant available nutrients. The substance acted upon by a soil enzyme is called the substrate.
They are utilized for environmental purposes in a number of industries including agro-food, oil, animal feed, detergent, pulp and paper, textile, leather, petroleum, and specialty chemical and biochemical industry. Enzymes also help to maintain an unpolluted environment through their use in waste management.
A variety of enzymes from plants and microorganisms have been reported to play important roles in an array of waste treatment application
The use of enzymes in the different industrial applications helps the environment by reducing the use of energy. In contrast to classical chemical processes the usage of enzymes whenever possible, enables a reduction in energy costs and reduces environmental pollution with effluents.