Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder. It is characterized primarily by "the co-existence of attentional problems and hyperactivity, with each behavior occurring infrequently alone" and symptoms starting before seven years of age.
Rates of medication treatment for ADHD varied by age and sex; children aged 11-17 years of age were more likely than those 4-10 years of age to take medication, and boys are 2.8 times more likely to take medication than girls.
Milder forms of hyperactivity, in contrast, were attributed in this era to psychological causes, such as "spoiled" child rearing practices or delinquent family environments. This idea that poor or disrupted parenting causes ADHD would also be resurrected in the 1970s and continues even today among many laypeople and critics of ADHD.
We are now learning that ADHD is not a disorder of attention, as had
long been assumed. Rather, it is a function of developmental failure in the brain circuitry that
monitors inhibition and self-control. This loss of self-regulation impairs other important brain
functions crucial for maintaining attention, including the ability to defer immediate rewards for
later gain (Barkley, 1998a).
Studies examining the correlation between age and executive functions in ADHD children are insufficient. It is not known how much age influences the executive functions in the brain, particularly in children with
ADHD. It is unclear whether the executive functions of the brain improve along with development.
Amen and Sogn suggest that all people with ADHD should take a 100% vitamin and mineral supplement each day. Many children, teens, and adults don't eat balanced diets, especially when rushing around trying to make it through the day's activities.
Scientists are not sure what causes ADHD, although many studies suggest that genes play a large role. Like many other illnesses, ADHD probably results from a combination of factors. In addition to genetics, researchers are looking at possible environmental factors, and are studying how brain injuries, nutrition, and the social environment might contribute to ADHD.
The disorder represents one of the most common reasons children are referred for behavioral problems to medical and mental health practitioners in the United States and is one of the most prevalent childhood psychological disorders.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental condition of inattention and distractibility, with or without accompanying hyperactivity. In the past, various terms were used to describe this condition, including hyperactive syndrome and, from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III), "minimal brain dysfunction."
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder of childhood, affecting 8 - 12% of school-aged children.
As of 2007, parents of 2.7 million youth ages 4-17 years (66.3% of those with a current diagnosis) report that their child was receiving medication treatment for the disorder.