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History of Vaccines

History of Vaccines

A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins.

 

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Kelly Pun

Kelly Pun

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Evidence exists that the Chinese employed smallpox inoculation (or variolation, as such use of smallpox material was called) as early as 1000 CE. It was practiced in Africa and Turkey as well, before it spread to Europe and the Americas.

Article: Vaccine History
Source: Vaccine History

The more similar a vaccine is to the disease-causing form of the organism, the better the immune response to the vaccine.

Article:   Epidemiology and Preventi…
Source:  Offline Book/Journal

The golden age of vaccine development did not come until after World War II, when several new vaccines were developed in a relatively short period. Their success in preventing diseases such as polio and measles was nothing short of revolutionary, and large-scale vaccination campaigns soon followed.

Article: A History of Vaccines
Source: Vaccine Resource Library

Because people do not fear the diseases anymore, vaccine coverage is falling in some areas, and diseases once thought beaten are making new inroads. The incidence of pertussis has increased in the United States in the last 20 years, with 27,550 cases reported in 2010. By June of 2011, 156 cases of measles were reported in the U.S., the highest in any year since 1996.

Article: A History of Vaccines
Source: Vaccine Resource Library

A vaccine is any preparation intended to produce immunity to a disease by stimulating the production of antibodies. Vaccines include, for example, suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms, or products or derivatives of microorganisms. The most common method of administering vaccines is by injection, but some are given by mouth or nasal spray.

Article: Vaccines
Source: World Health Organization

While still a medical student, Jenner noticed that milkmaids who had contracted a disease called cowpox, which caused blistering on cow's udders, did not catch smallpox. Unlike smallpox, which caused severe skin eruptions and dangerous fevers in humans, cowpox led to few ill symptoms in these women.

Article: May 14, 1796: Jenner Test...
Source: History Channel

On May 14, 1796, Jenner took fluid from a cowpox blister and scratched it into the skin of James Phipps, an eight-year-old boy. A single blister rose up on the spot, but James soon recovered. On July 1, Jenner inoculated the boy again, this time with smallpox matter, and no disease developed. The vaccine was a success.

Article: May 14, 1796: Jenner Test...
Source: History Channel

World War II accelerated vaccine development. Fear of a repetition of the 1918–19 world epidemic of influenza focused urgent attention on all viral diseases, while commercial production of antibiotics taught researchers to grow viruses with less microbe contamination.

Article: History of Vaccines
Source: National Museum of Americ...

Louis Pasteur’s 1885 rabies vaccine was the next to make an impact on human disease. And then, at the dawn of bacteriology, developments rapidly followed. Antitoxins and vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus, anthrax, cholera, plague, typhoid, tuberculosis, and more were developed through the 1930s.

Article: All Timelines Overview
Source: The College of Physicians...

The fear seems also to have been fueled by an ever expanding and complicated vaccine schedule for younger children, with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now recommending 11 vaccines in multiple doses during the first six years of life.

Article: Fear of Vaccines Has a Lo...
Source: US News and World Report

This type of "vaccine phobia" has perhaps never been expressed more vehemently than with the standard measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) childhood vaccine, which many insist is tied to autism.

Article: Fear of Vaccines Has a Lo...
Source: US News and World Report

Edward Jenner, born in England in 1749, is one of the most famous physicians in medical history. Jenner tested the hypothesis that infection with cowpox could protect a person from smallpox infection. All vaccines developed since Jenner’s time stem from his work.

Article: The Scientific Method in ...
Source: The College of Physicians...

The United States Department of Health and Human Services and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offer Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedules for children aged 0-6 years and 7-18 years, as well as a “catch-up schedule” for kids four months to 18 years old who may have missed recommended vaccinations.

Article: The Development of the Im...
Source: The College of Physicians...

Most side effects from vaccination are mild, such as soreness, swelling, or redness at the injection site. Some vaccines are associated with fever, rash, and achiness. Serious side effects are rare, but may include life-threatening allergic reaction or seizure.

Article: Vaccine Side Effects and ...
Source: The College of Physicians...

Seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended yearly for all adults; in fact, it is recommended for everyone over the age of 6 months. The vaccine protects against respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. Because new strains of influenza appear frequently, the seasonal flu vaccine usually changes each year.

Article: Vaccines for Adults
Source: The College of Physicians...

There are two basic types of vaccines: live attenuated and inactivated. The characteristics of live and inactivated vaccines are different, and these characteristics determine how the vaccine is used.

Article: Types of Vaccines
Source: The University of Aukland

Live vaccines are derived from “wild,” or disease-causing, virus or bacteria. These wild viruses or bacteria are attenuated, or weakened, in a laboratory, usually by repeated culturing. For example, the measles vaccine used today was isolated from a child with measles disease in 1954. Almost 10 years of serial passage on tissue culture media was required to transform the wild virus into vaccine virus.

Article: Types of Vaccines
Source: The University of Aukland

Many of these are live viri that have been cultivated under conditions that disable their virulent properties, or which use closely-related but less dangerous organisms to produce a broad immune response, however some are bacterial in nature. They typically provoke more durable immunological responses and are the preferred type for healthy adults. Examples include the viral diseases yellow fever, measles, rubella, and mumps and the bacterial disease typhoid.

Article: Vaccine History
Source: News-Medical

Toxoids – these are inactivated toxic compounds in cases where these (rather than the micro-organism itself) cause illness. Examples of toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria.

Article: Vaccine History
Source: THE MEDICAL NEWS | from N...

Toxoids – these are inactivated toxic compounds in cases where these (rather than the micro-organism itself) cause illness. Examples of toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria.

Article: Vaccine History
Source: News-Medical
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