Behavior modification is the use of empirically demonstrated behavior change techniques to increase or decrease the frequency of behaviors, such as altering an individual's behaviors and reactions to stimuli through positive and negative reinforcement of adaptive behavior and/or the reduction of behavior through its extinction, punishment...etc.
Pediatricians have an important role not only in early recognition and evaluation of autism spectrum disorders but also in chronic management of these disorders. The primary goals of treatment are to maximize the child's ultimate functional independence and quality of life by minimizing the core autism spectrum disorder features, facilitating development and learning, promoting socialization, reducing maladaptive behaviors, and educating and supporting families.
Video modeling [was used] to teach a preschooler with autism to imitate previously mastered and not mastered actions during song and toy play activities. In addition to video modeling, additive components that included highlighting critical features of the video examples, prompting/fading, and social reinforcement were required to demonstrate a functional relationship. The results also showed generalized imitative performance to actions that were not previously mastered. The findings suggest that general case analysis, video modeling, and additive procedures can be combined to both teach new imitative behaviors and promote generalization of previously-mastered behaviors.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) Is an evidence-based psychological approach, practiced by a range of professionals, for the treatment of mental health and other personal and family problems. It seeks to help clients to analyse and 'reality test' existing patterns of thinking, emotional reactions and behavior identified via an assessment of current difficulties, and to try out new approaches in stepwise fashion, monitory and evaluating effects in all three areas.
Until recently, autism has been considered by many as a hopeless, incurable, and absolute condition. Now, however, research suggests that intensive behavioral intervention, begun when a child is between 2 and 5 yrs old, can have a significant and lasting positive impact. This intervention leads to improvement in virtually all children, and in some cases it leads to complete eradication of any sign of the disorder. While behavioral intervention is also the treatment of choice for older children and adults with autism, research shows that its potential for dramatic improvement is greatest with young children.
Children with ASD are natural creators and followers of routines. When these routines involve maladaptive eating practices, the school-based SLP may need to work with teachers and families to create and establish more adaptive mealtime rules and routines. The goal here is not to remove routines, but rather to establish new ones that are more beneficial.
After the behavior problems are reduced, the focus can shift to dealing with other aspects of behavior change, such as improving communication and social interaction.
Skills that can be acquired: self-help skills - (ex: feeding, toileting, dressing, grooming); social skills - (ex: accepting, eye contact, sitting and attention skills); play skills - (ex: turn taking, sharing, joining/initiating play, imaginary play, and games with rule); language development - (ex: conversation skills, following instructions, and requesting)
Video Self-Modeling (VSM) interventions for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have can help to reduce problem behaviors in some students. Given the wide range of behaviors and deﬁcits in individuals with ASD, it is not surprising that different participants responded differently to VSM interventions.
Early Intensive Behavioural Intervention is a highly structured and intense intervention in which a child is taught a range of skills by a team of therapists. The therapists break down the skills into small tasks that are considered to be achievable and which are taught in a very structured manner.
Desired behaviour, such as use of language or socialisation, is positively reinforced and accompanied by lots of praise. Negative behaviour, such as self harm or aggression towards others, is not reinforced.
A major aid in cognitive therapy is what Albert Ellis called the ABC Technique of Irrational Beliefs. The first three steps analyze the process by which a person has developed irrational beliefs and may be recorded in a three-column table. * A - Activating Event or objective situation. The first column records the objective situation, that is, an event that ultimately leads to some type of high emotional response or negative dysfunctional thinking. * B - Beliefs. In the second column, the client writes down the negative thoughts that occurred to them. * C - Consequence. The third column is for the negative feelings and dysfunctional behaviors that ensued. The negative thoughts of the second column are seen as a connecting bridge between the situation and the distressing feelings. The third column C is next explained by describing emotions or negative thoughts that the client thinks are caused by A. This could be anger, sorrow, anxiety, etc.
A key finding was that parent-reported autism symptoms were lower in the CBT group than the waitlist group at the post assessment, with a medium to large effect size. A particular improvement made by the CBT group was in social communication skills.