"They learn coping skills," he said. "Schoolwide, we're trying to improve the atmosphere."
Hillside's program is part of a districtwide effort to implement a Positive Behavior Intervention program that will give students the emotional and social skills they need to prevent misbehavior. Teachers are being trained in the techniques, which proponents say reduces the number of suspensions given to students as punishment.
One of the primary methods psychiatric consumers utilize to effectively manage their illness is coping skills. The ways in which individuals have coped with stressful events in their lives has had a long history. The research on "defense" constructs was studied in the 19th century and relates to aspects of psychoanalysis (Parker & Endler, 1996). However, the concept of coping did not appear in Psychological Abstracts until 1967 (Parker & Endler, 1996; Popplesten & McPherson, 1988).
Coping-skills training (CST) and cue-exposure treatment (CET) are two relatively new approaches in alcoholism treatment. With CST, the therapist tries to strengthen the patient's skills in coping with situations associated with a high risk of drinking. These skills can be specific to certain high-risk situations or involve general social skills. Specific CST treatment approaches include relapse prevention training, social or communication skills training, urge-- specific coping-skills training, and cognitive-behavioral mood management training.
Coping skills and crisis prevention programs have been developed for a variety of military contexts, but the results have been variable. At the recruit training level, Williams et al. reported increased graduation rates associated with a weekly, 45-minute, cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered for 9 weeks. The program was designed to reduce depression among naval recruits by enhancing their sense of belonging and problem-solving skills.
The guiding theory is that deficits in the ability to cope with life stress in general and with alcohol-related stimuli (i.e., alcohol cues) in particular help maintain excessive drinking and lead to a resumption of drinking following aborted attempts at abstinence.
They employ some form of individual coping-skills training to address the patient's deficits. For example, each CBST approach teaches skills (using a standard set of techniques) to help the patient identify specific situations in which coping inadequacies typically occur. To enhance the clients coping skills in those situations, all CBSTs use such teaching tools as instruction, modeling, role play, and behavioral rehearsal.
The results of a few studies indicated that self-concept levels are related to coping strategies (Poon & Lau, 1999; Smith et al., 1996). In the current study involving Korean female early adolescents, positive self-concept was highly correlated with some approach coping strategies such as positive reappraisal and problem solving, and negative self-concept was correlated with some avoidance coping strategies such as acceptance/resignation and emotional discharge. Poon and Lau (1999) reported that students with a small selfconcept discrepancy tend to cope with failure by wellplanned problem solving, positive reappraisal, and seeking social support.
Coping is a complex process that can be defined as "constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person." According to Lazarus and Folkman, the first step in coping is cognitive appraisal, which is crucial to the impact of a particular disease on a particular child. Having appraised the situation, individuals can implement coping behaviors to reduce distress or manage the problem.
Coping, as they defined it, is the process of constantly changing behaviors or cognitive perceptions, or both, to control, lessen, or endure external conditions, internal conditions, or both, which are viewed as stressful by the individual. The two primary purposes of coping are to manage the situation causing the stress (problem focused coping), and to relieve or manage the emotional reaction to the stress (emotion-focused coping).
This study confirms that international medical students have to deal with issues such as cultural adaptation, language barriers, academic and financial constraints. It also reveals that they employ efficient coping strategies such as seeking and maintaining strong support networks, setting and striving to achieve high academic goals for themselves and endeavouring to actively engage themselves in their learning environments. They use all these strategies to organise their lives, persist, overcome challenges and succeed academically.
Men who have fond childhood memories of their dads have better coping skills when dealing with stress as an adult, according to new research.
A good relationship with Mom helps reduces psychological distress, too, but the relationship with Dad seems key in a man’s ability to cope with everyday hassles such as traffic and financial pressure, says Melanie Mallers, PhD, an assistant professor of psychology at California State University, Fullerton, who presented her findings at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association in San Diego.