Gender inequality refers to disparity between individuals due to gender. Gender systems are often dichotomous and hierarchical; binary gender systems may reflect the inequalities that manifest in numerous dimensions of daily life. Gender inequality stems from distinctions, whether empirically grounded or socially constructed.
In every country on earth, women are paid less for doing the same work as men. In the U.S., women earn only 77 cents on the dollar paid to men; women of ethnic minorities earn considerably less.
Saudi Arabia sits just four places ahead of Yemen. Since 2008, the kingdom’s literacy rate among women has dropped as has the primary and secondary school enrollment of girls. The report points out that “Saudi Arabia remains the lowest-ranking country in the region on political empowerment.
One consistent finding from the 1960s and 1970s is that psychological distress is greatest among wives with husbands who contribute litter. Family work can be fulfilling, but most women were respsonsible for virtually all of the most time consuming and less pleasant tasks like cleaning and washing. Th obligatory, relentless, and lonely nature of this work has been suggested as one reason for American household wives' high levels of depression in the 1950s and 1960s.
Trend statistics also reflect a striking reversal of a gender gap in college completion that once favored males. In 1960, 65% of all bachelor's degrees were awarded to men. Women continued to lag behind men in college graduation rates until 1982 when they reached parity with men. From 1982 onward the percentage of bachelor's degrees awarded to women continued to climb such that by 2005 women received 58% of all bachelor's degrees and comprised 57% of all college students.
In 1995 the commission said that the barrier was continuing “to deny untold numbers of qualified people the opportunity to compete for and hold executive level positions in the private sector.” It found that women had 45.7% of America's jobs and more than half of master's degrees being awarded. Yet 95% of senior managers were men, and female managers' earnings were on average a mere 68% of their male counterparts'.
In contrast to the gender wage gap and differences in access to education, inequality in labor market participation rates does not necessarily involve gender discrimination, as females may choose not to work or to work fewer hours if they take care of children or other family members. Discrimination in access to jobs, in job promotion or wages, on the other hand, may lead to a reduction in the female labor supply, thereby signaling discrimination too.
At the bottom of the rankings are countries whose presence comes as no surprise. The worst nation in terms of gender equality is Yemen, where women have yet to attain 50 percent of the status of men.
While differences in earnings remain relevant here as well, historically, major expressions of gendered agency inequality have been found, for example, that the wife lost a basic civil right if her husband had the sole right to exercise economic control in the family. In analyses of gendered agency inequality, a classical theme has focused on what Pateman (1989) once described as the "Wollstonecraft's Dilemma", referring to women's choice between paid and unpaid work. The continuing centrality of this dilemma reflects the fact that while in Western societies the labour market is the key arena on which economic and other inequalities amongst citizens are based and developed, on this arena women have traditionally more or less marginal participants.
After the career years, women are only half as likely as men to receive a pension, which will be half the amount awarded to men. This could explain why 75% of 85-year-old Social Security recipients are female and why women are almost twice as likely as men to spend their later years in poverty.
In the case of the separate spheres work ideal, women are assumed to be inherently suited to serve men, which renders them naturally prepared to perform unpaid labor for their husbands and children. In conjunction with being economically dependent on men and fearing violence from them, the separate spheres ideal perpetuates the idea that women are naturally in need of protection and provision.
Ten years on, women account for 46.5% of America's workforce and for less than 8% of its top managers, although at big Fortune 500 companies the figure is a bit higher. Booz Allen Hamilton, a consulting firm that monitors departing chief executives in America, found that 0.7% of them were women in 1998, and 0.7% of them were women in 2004. In between, the figure fluctuated, but the firm says that one thing is clear: the number is “very low and not getting higher”.